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PLANTS

The txʷəlšucid language, our teaching and culture come from the land. These are some of the names, phrases and domains for plants in the txʷəlšucid language.

Disclaimer

The intent of this page is to highlight the Twulshootseed language. These are not intended as a guide for gathering, harvesting, or processing plants.


If you are not 100% positive on what you are gathering or eating -- do not gather it and do not eat it.


We receive many requests for plant translations from our community to create signage. If you are interested in creating signage from any of the Twulshootseed vocabulary, we ask that you send proofs to language@puyalluptribe-nsn.gov. Many mistakes can be made and we want to ensure Lushootseed Country is represented properly in our communities.


The initials in parentheses refer to the First Language speaker who was our source for the plant name. Plants without an attribution were formed from words that have an attribution using txʷəlšucid grammatical features.

Search the plant database
Twulshootseed English Img
t’ədiʔ (WS)Bracken Fern Rhizome
sbulabac (AB), sx̌alx̌ (AB)Thistle, Edible Thistle
pasac (NR)Pear Tree
čilaxʷac (AB), dᶻidᶻəgʷac (AB)Larkspur Plant
q’ap’ux̌ʷac, q’p’ux̌ʷəc (BHH)Hazelnut Tree, Beaked Hazelnut Tree
Full Plant List Categories
Twulshootseed English Img
ʔapəlsacApple Tree
x̌ubtilac (AB)Ash Tree, Oregon Ash Tree
č’uɫac (VH)Bigleaf Maple Tree
k’ʷəlwastəd ʔə tə pliləʔ (VH), sk’ʷək’ʷalwasac (BHH), sq’ʷəq’ʷalwačac (DS/VH)Canoe Birch Tree, Paper Birch Tree, White Birch Tree
čəlisac (AB)Cherry Tree
c’ə́x̌ʷəd, c’əx̌ʷád (GG)Common Chokecherry or other product of Common Chokecherry Tree
q’ʷədiq’ʷac (EB)Cottonwood Tree
qaʔxʷac (AB)Crabapple Tree, Pacific Crabapple Tree
čəbidac (VH), sčəbidac (EB)Douglas Fir Tree
kʷədabidac, qəlub ʔə sbiaw (AB/EG)Flowering Dogwood Tree
čaʔadᶻac (BHH, GG)Garry Oak Tree
čibidac (AB), čibádac (GG)Hawthorn Tree
q’ap’ux̌ʷac, q’p’ux̌ʷəc (BHH)Hazelnut Tree, Beaked Hazelnut Tree
qʷuƛ’əc (TTW), k’ʷúƛ’əc (VH, JM, ZZ)Madrone Tree
c’əx̌bidac c’əx̌bidac (VH), c’əx̌əbídac (GG)Pacific Yew Tree, Western Yew Tree
pasac (NR)Pear Tree
q’ʷíʔq’ʷədíq’ʷac (GG)Quaking Aspen Tree
yusáwiʔac (BHH, GG)Red Alder Tree
sc’abtac (BHH, GG)Red Elderberry Bush
kʷikʷ(ə)xʷicac (AB), pəx̌pəqiac (EB)Red Willow Bush, Creek Dogwood Bush, Red-osier Dogwood Bush, Red Brush Bush
c’áxʷəyac (GG)Shore Pine Tree
c’apac (AB)Silver Willow Tree
c’əlqayʔac (AB)Sitka Spruce Tree
č’uč’uɫac (BHH, GG)Vine Maple Tree
t’əq’ədiʔac (VH), kʷaləkʷəc (ED), skʷupəc (ESi), sqʷxʷbixʷac , t’uʔxʷəc (LG) skupac (AB)Western Hemlock Tree
x̌əpayac (VH)Western Red Cedar Tree
ɫəq’t(a)čiʔac (AB/EB)White Fir Tree, Silver Fir Tree
pliləʔac (BHH)Wild Cherry Tree
c’ə́x̌ʷədac, c’əx̌ʷádac (GG)Common Chokecherry Tree
sčəbídac (EB) Tree, General
c’ə́x̌ʷədac, c’əx̌ʷádac (GG), c’ə́x̌ʷəbac (VH)Chokecherry Shrub
Twulshootseed English Img
č’italbixʷ (AB)Any Product Of Bear Grass Plant
ʔulal (BHH, GG)Any Product Of Cattail Plant
sbəc’əcdaliɫədac (AB)Baneberry Plant
bidᶻac (AB)Bean Plant
č’italbixʷac (EB)Bear Grass Plant
bicac (AB)Beet Plant
č’iq’ʷ(i)lac (AB)Bigleaf Avens Plant
x̌aawšac (LO)Biscuitroot Plant, Nineleaf Biscuitroot Plant, Desert Parsley Plant, Indian Parsley Plant
piyəx̌iac (AB)Bitterroot Plant
gʷədbixʷac Blackberry Vine
c’abidac (BHH)Blue Camas Plant
c’ikʷikʷac (AB)Blue Elderberry Bush
swədaʔx̌ac, wədaʔx̌ac (EB)Blue Huckleberry Plant, Black Huckleberry Plant, Mountain Huckleberry Plant
bul’cəbac, buʔsəbac (BHH)Bog Bilberry Plant, Bog Blueberry Plant, Northern Bilberry Plant, Western Blueberry Plant
č’aləšac (GG)Bracken Fern Plant
x̌ibx̌ibac (EG)Burdock Plant, Common Burdock Plant
šagaqac (AB)Carrot Plant, Queen Anne’S Lace Plant, Wild Carrot Plant, Bird’S Nest Plant, Bishops Lace Plant
q’ayx̌ac, t’ac’abac (HR)Cascara Bush, Cascara Buckthorn Bush, Cascara Sagrada Bush, Bearberry, Chittem Stick Bush, Chitticum Stick Bush
ʔulal (BHH, GG)Cattail Plant
sqʷubac (AB/GG)Celery Plant
cəmcəməsac (GG/EG)Columbine Plant
c’aq’abac (GG)Common Gooseberry Bush, Coast Black Gooseberry Bush, Mountain Gooseberry Bush
šišəlc’ac (LG)Common Horsetail Plants
sk’ʷəbšədac (AB/EB)Cow Parsnip Plant
ƛ’x̌ulčac (AB)Cranberry Bush
baq’aʔac (AB/EG)Death Camas Plant
tičačəlwiʔac (EB) čičáčəlwiac (GG)Devil’S Club Plant
q’ʷq’ʷəlac (EB/LW)Evergreen Huckleberry Bush
x̌ax̌alč (TTW), x̌acx̌acac (AB), cudadx̌iac (AB)Fireweed Plant
k’agʷalxʷac (AB/GG)Flax Plant, Linseed Plant
k’agʷalxʷ (AB/GG)Flax, Linseed Or Other Product Of This Plant
qʷədᶻəbac (EB), q’ič’ayac (GG)General Moss
sqʷiʔqʷaliʔ (BHH), sqʷiqʷaliʔ (BHH)Grass
sqʷaliʔ (BHH)Hay
ƛ’əlx̌ulčac (EC), sƛ’əx̌ul’čac (EB), ƛ’ələlcac (ESi) Highbush Cranberry Bush, Viburnum Bush
qəlub ʔə sqədix̌ (ZZ), yidúʔac GGHoneysuckle Vine Or Bush
haps (WS)Hops
qʷəlútac (LG, MC), qʷə́lutac (ZZ)Hudson Bay Tea Plant, Labrador Tea Plant, Marsh Tea Plant
səxʷəʔ ʔə stəqayuʔ “urine of wolf” (AB)Indian Pipe Plant
c’əx̌ʷədac (EB)Indian Plum Bush, Osoberry Bush
k’ayuk’ayuac (EB), sq’əywádac (BHH, EG, GG MS)Kinnikinnick Plant, Bearberry Plant
q’alq’alac (AB)Lady Fern Plant
čilaxʷac (AB), dᶻidᶻəgʷac (AB)Larkspur Plant
sƛ’wilqʷac (AB/EB)Licorice Fern Plant
c’ayəp ʔə swəq’iq’ (GG), waq’waq’ilqs (GG)Liverwort Plant
cabcəbac (AB)Maidenhair Fern Plant
sqədix̌ədiʔac “muskrat ear” (AB)Monkey Flower Plant
sc’ədᶻx̌ac (BHH), c’ədᶻx̌ac (GG)Nettle Plant
qaqalqaləkʷac (AB)Nickname For Violet Plant
c’k’apaʔac (BHH)Nootka Rose Bush, Bristly Rose Bush, Wild Rose Bush
qcagʷəc (VH, BHH, GG)Ocean Spray Bush, Oceanspray Bush, Ironwood Bush
qəsqəsiʔac (AB/EG)Old Man Root Plant, Wild-Cucumber Plant Poisonous, Do Not Eat!!!
x̌ucx̌uciac (AB)Pacific Bleeding Heart Plant
pəqʷac (EG)Pacific Ninebark Bush
k’ʷəlwas ʔə kʷi sqiqədᶻuhap (AB)Pearly Everlasting Plant
q’əskʷiac (AB)Peppermint Plant, Mint Plant
čičlaxʷac (EB), čičilac (GG/AB)Prince’S Pine Plant
čəlqʷubəʔac (BHH), čəlqʷubac (GG)Raspberry, Black Cap Plant, Black Raspberry Plant, Whitebark Raspberry Plant, Blue Raspberry Plant
p’əp’ayəqədac (BHH)Red Flowering Currant Bush
st’it’ixʷac/st’ət’ixʷac (LG), st’(i)xʷibac (ESi), st’ixʷibac (EB)Red Huckleberry Bush
t’əbásaac (LG)Rhubarb Plant
t’aqaʔac (BHH, GG)Salal Plant
stəgʷədac (BHH, GG)Salmonberry Bush
q’ʷəlastəbac (ML)Serviceberry Bush
q’ilt’ (BHH)Skunk Cabbage Plant
sx̌ʷiac (BHH)Small Oregon Grape Plant
sísk’ʷidac (GG)Snowberry Bush Poisonous, Do Not Eat!!!
sx̌ʷasəb (VH), sqʷasəb (EB)Soapberry Bush
k’aʔk’aʔdiɫədac “crow food” (AB)Solomon’s Seal Plant
c’əkʷiʔac (AB/BHH)Spiny Wood Fern Plant
skʷašac (AB)Squash Plant
t’iləqʷac (BHH)Strawberry Plant
sx̌ax̌əlčac (BHH), sx̌əx̌ulčac (EB)Sword Fern Plant
qʷəbqʷəbčac (BHH)Tall Oregon Grape Plant
qiqədᶻuhap (AB)Tansy Plant
ɫəɫaqac (BHH)Thimbleberry Plant
cagʷičac (WS)Tiger Lily Plant
p’uqʷac (AB/EB)Trailing Black Currant Bush, Spreading Currant Bush
šəxʷšəxʷabac, qəlub ʔə swatixʷtəd the eye of the earth“ (AB)Trillium Plant
sk’ʷik’ʷaac (GG)Tule Plant
didəbuʔac (AB, GG)Turnip Plant
k’aʔk’aʔdaliɫədac “crow food” (EB)Vanillaleaf Plant
spiqʷulcac, spiqʷucac (BHH, GG)Wapato Plant
q’ubciac (AB/TTW)Water Lily Plant
xʷalčƛ’ac (AB)Wild Ginger Plant
čičlaxʷac (AB)Wild Pea Plant, Vetch Plant
yəst’adac (AB/EG)Wild Rose Bush
kʷədᶻabdupac (AB)Wood Sorrel Plant
sqiqdᶻuhapac (EB)Yarrow Plant
t’əbucac (AB/GG)Yellow Dock Plant
sɫaliac (AB) Yellow Glacier Lily Plant
stutxʷədup (AB)Yerba Buena Plant, Oregon Tea Plant
Twulshootseed English Img
ʔapəls (AB)Apple
čəlqʷubəʔ (BHH), čəlqʷubaʔ (GG)Raspberry, Black Cap, Black Raspberry Or Other Product Of The Bush
gʷədbixʷ (BHH, GG)Blackberry Or Other Product Of The Vine
c’ikʷikʷ (AB)Blue Elderberry Or Other Product Of This Bush
bul’cəb, buʔsəb (BHH)Bog Bilberry, Bog Blueberry, Northern Bilberry, Western Blueberry
čəlis (AB)Cherry Or Other Product Of The Tree
qaʔxʷ (AB)Crabapple, Pacific Crabapple Or Other Product Of Crabapple Tree
ƛ’x̌ulč (AB)Cranberry, Or Product Of Cranberry Bush
q’ʷq’ʷəl (EB/LW)Evergreen Huckleberry Or Other Product Of This Bush
čibid (AB), čibád (GG)Hawthorn Fruit Or Other Product Of This Tree
q’ap’ux̌ʷ (BHH)Hazelnut Or Other Product Of The Tree
ƛ’əlx̌ulč (EC), sƛ’əx̌ul’č (EB), ƛ’ələlc (ESi) Highbush Cranberry, Viburnum Berry Or Other Product Of This Bush
c’əx̌ʷəd (EB)Indian Plum, Osoberry Or Other Product Of This Bush
k’ayuk’ayu (EB), sq’əywád (BHH, EG, GG MS)Kinnikinnick Berry, Bearberry Or Other Product Of This Plant
c’ək’apaʔ (BHH)Nootka Rose Hip Or Other Product Of The Bush
pas (NR)Pear
qəlitxʷaʔ (AB)Red Form Of Salmonberry
st’it’ixʷ/st’ət’ixʷ (LG), st’(i)xʷib (ESi), st’ixʷib (EB)Red Huckleberry Or Other Product Of This Bush
t’aqa (BHH, GG)Salal Berry Or Product Of Salal Plant
stəgʷəd (BHH, GG)Salmonberry Or Product Of Salmonberry Bush
q’ʷəlastəb (ML)Serviceberry Or Other Product Of This Bush
sx̌ʷi (BHH)Small Oregon Grape Berry Or Product Of Bush
t’iləqʷ (BHH)Strawberry Or Product Of Strawberry Plant
qʷəbqʷəbč (BHH)Tall Oregon Grape Berry Or Product Of Bush
ɫəɫaq (BHH)Thimbleberry Or Product Of Thimbleberry Plant
p’uqʷ (AB/EB)Trailing Black Currant, Spreading Currant Berry Or Other Product Of This Bush
pliləʔ (BHH)Wild Cherry Or Other Product Of Wild Cherry Tree
c’ə́x̌ʷəd, c’əx̌ʷád (GG), c’ə́x̌ʷəb (VH)Chokecherry
Twulshootseed English Img
bidᶻ (AB)Beans
bic, x̌ikʷiƛ’ didəbuʔ (AB)Beet
piyəx̌i (AB)Bitterroot Or Other Product Of The Bitterroot Plant
c’abid (BHH)Blue Camas Bulb
sx̌ədᶻəb (BHH, GG)Processed And Dried Camas Bulb
šagaq (AB)Carrot Or Other Product Of The Plant
t’ədiʔ (WS)Bracken Fern Rhizome
ʔəǰəd (IB, NR)Onion
ləpuys (AB)Pea
skʷaš (AB)Squash
c’əc’aʔus (BHH)Thimbleberry Sprout
sbulabac (AB), sx̌alx̌ (AB)Thistle, Edible Thistle
didəbuʔ (AB, GG)Turnip
spiqʷulc, spiqʷuc (BHH, GG)Wapato Potato, Potato (Modern Usage)
cagʷič (WS)Tiger Lily Bulb Or Other Product Of This Plant
sƛ’wilqʷ (AB/EB)Licorice Fern Root
First Language Speaker Key
Initals First Language Speaker
EB Earnest Barr – Snoqualmie speaker lived at Muckleshoot
IB Iola Brayford – Muckleshoot, daughter of Annie Jack
ED Ed Davis – Snoqualmie, also spoke Skagit
LG Louise George – Skagit
VH Vi Hilbert – Upper Skagit
ML Martha Lamont – Tulalip
LO Lillian Ortiz – Duwamish, Muckleshoot, Puyallup
HR Hellen Ross – Skagit
NR Nellie Ramirez – Squaxin
DS Dora Soloman – Skagit
WS Walter Sam – Skagit, raised in Southern Lushootseed territory
ESi Edward Sigo – Suquamish speaker
Books/Publications/Recordings
Ballard, A. C. (1927). Some Tales of the Southern Puget Sound Salish. University of Washington Publications in Anthropology, 2(3), 57–81.
Ballard, A. C. (1929). Mythology of the Southern Puget Sound. University of Washington Publications in Anthropology, 3(2), 31–150.
Barr, Ernie. Recorded by Zalmai ʔəswəli Zahir, November 18th 1995
Bates, D., Hess, T., & Hilbert, V. (1994). Lushootseed Dictionary. University of Washington Press.
Cross, S. (n.d.). Puyallup Language (Vol. 1). Puyallup Tribe of Indians Medicine Creek Treaty Nation.
Gibbs, G. (2009). A Lushootseed Analysis of a 1877 Dictionary by George Gibbs. (Z. ʔəswəli Zahir, Ed.). Zahir Consulting Services.
Gunther, E., & Janish, J. R. (1993). Ethnobotany of Western Washington: The knowledge and use of indigenous plants by Native Americans. University of Washington Press.
Sanders, A. (1941). Salmon Life Cycle Narrative [Speech audio recording]. Smithsonian Collection, J.P. Harrington Collection Recordings.
Smith, M. W. (1969). The Puyallup-Nisqually. AMS Press.
Snyder, W. A. (1968). Southern Puget Sound Salish: Texts, place names and dictionary. Sacramento Anthropological Society, Sacramento State College.
Turner, H. (1976). Ethnozoology of the Snoqualmie. Harriet Turner.
Waterman, T. T., Hilbert, V., Miller, J., & Zahir, Z. (2022). Puget Sound Geography. Lushootseed Press.

Plant Videos



This section is a collection of short videos about plants, flowers and fruit. The videos that correspond to the seasons and what sort of things you might encounter in the Puget Sound region. The names for the plants were compiled by Zalmai ʔəswəli Zahir. The plant names used in the videos are generally from the Southern Dialect of Lushootseed. The scripts for each of the videos is in the video description. Please keep in mind that there may be variations to some or all of these names and that they way they are spoken and written in the videos is not intended to exclude all others. We strive to document and respect all variations of our language and, to that end, we ask that if you heard your Elders say something different please share with us!